Store [92], Ferdinand restarted peace talks in November, but his position worsened when Gallas' army disintegrated; the remnants retreated into Bohemia, where they were scattered by Torstenson at Jankau in March 1645. During his reign, Sweden became one of the primary military forces in Europe during the Thirty Years' War, helping to determine the political and religious balance of power in Europe. [113], Taken as a whole, the consequences of these two treaties can be divided into the internal political settlement and external territorial changes. He died at the Battle of Lutzen on November 6, 1632. The combination destabilised large parts of the Empire. He asked for the opinion of each in writing, so that their opinion would not be quelled by others. Emperor Rudolf approved intervention by the Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria on their behalf. [111], Externally, the treaties formally acknowledged the independence of the Dutch Republic and the Swiss Confederacy, effectively autonomous since 1499. There was little serious fighting after France took control of Perpignan and Roussillon, establishing the modern Franco-Spanish border in the Pyrenees. "Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years' War." [71] Two months later, the Swedes won a resounding victory at Lützen, where Gustavus was killed. [90], Three weeks after Rocroi, Ferdinand invited Sweden and France to attend peace negotiations in the Westphalian towns of Münster and Osnabrück, but talks were delayed when Christian of Denmark blockaded Hamburg and increased toll payments in the Baltic. While flight saved lives in the short-term, in the long run it often proved catastrophic. [86], While he accepted military victory was no longer possible, Ferdinand hoped to restrict peace negotiations to members of the Empire, excluding France and Sweden. [34], Thurn established a new government, and the conflict expanded into Silesia and the Habsburg heartlands of Lower and Upper Austria, where much of the nobility was also Protestant. At this point kings were concerned primarily with gaining power for their dynasty or nation. [120], By modern standards, the number of soldiers involved was relatively low; most battles were fought by opposing forces of around 13,000 to 20,000, the largest being Alte Veste in 1632, which featured a combined total of 70,000 - 85,000. [27] Some historians who see the war as primarily a European conflict argue Jülich marks its beginning, with Spain and Austria backing the Catholic candidate, France and the Dutch Republic the Protestant. [42], The strategic importance of the Palatinate and its proximity to the Spanish Road drew in external powers; in August 1620, the Spanish occupied the Lower Palatinate. As the Thirty Years War began to rage through Germany, Gustavus Adolphus wanted to join in the conflict, but he could not do it alone. Gustavus wrote to Oxenstiern, his chancellor: You say that we haven’t money to pay troops for more than four months: granted; but once let us plant our foothold sure, and God and the hour will teach us how to strengthen ourselves further. However, the rebels soon found the new French administration differed little from the old, turning the war into a three-sided contest between the Franco-Catalan elite, the rural peasantry, and the Spanish. It also provided opportunities for external opponents of the Habsburgs, including the Ottoman Empire and Savoy. With all these elements, Gustavus was able to create a cohesive, well disciplined army, with tactics that integrated the infantry, cavalry and artillery. [83], Despite the death of Bernhard, over the next two years the Franco-Swedish alliance won a series of battles in Germany, including Wolfenbüttel in June 1641 and Kempen in January 1642. They included Christian IV of Denmark, who was also Duke of Holstein; in 1625 he intervened in Northern Germany until forced to withdraw in 1629. The plot of the film is set against the backdrop of the war and Christina's determination as queen, depicted a decade later, to end the war and bring about peace. By the time he died in 1631, over 900 people from all levels of society had been executed. [117], It has been argued the Peace established the principle known as Westphalian sovereignty, the idea of non-interference in domestic affairs by outside powers, although this has since been challenged. Ferdinand accepted the supremacy of the Imperial Diet and legal institutions, reconfirmed the Augsburg settlement, and recognised Calvinism as a third religion. [50], Ferdinand had paid Wallenstein for his support against Frederick with estates confiscated from the Bohemian rebels, and now contracted with him to conquer the north on a similar basis. [135] They originated in the Bishopric of Würzburg, an area with a history of such events going back to 1616 and now re-ignited by Bishop von Ehrenberg, a devout Catholic eager to assert the church's authority in his territories. The plot of the film is set against the backdrop of the war and Christina's determination as queen, depicted a decade later, to end the war and bring about peace. [104], Between 1629 and 1631, plague exacerbated by troop movements killed 60,000 in Milan and 46,000 in Venice, with proportionate losses elsewhere. So during the first part of the war several Protestant princes were defeated one by one, by Catholics like Ferdinand, Holy Roman Emperor. The Swedes were better provided with winter equipment, and they won some success, being treated as deliverers by the local Protestants. As the Thirty Years War began to rage through Germany, Gustavus Adolphus wanted to join in the conflict, but he could not do it alone. [140], The extent to which these witch-hunts were symptomatic of the impact of the conflict on society is debatable, since many took place in areas relatively untouched by the war. [128], In 1940, agrarian historian Günther Franz published Der Dreissigjährige Krieg und das Deutsche Volk, a detailed analysis of regional data from across Germany; membership of the Nazi Party meant his objectivity was challenged post-1945, but recent reviews support his general findings. In October, von Hatzfeldt defeated a Swedish-English-Palatine force at Vlotho but the main Imperial army under Matthias Gallas abandoned North-East Germany to the Swedes, unable to sustain itself in the devastated area. Up to that point, there had been important religious elements in the war, but one of the major issues was the balance of power between the emperor and the lesser German princes. After two years he again turned his attention to Germany. This meant each of the 224 member states was either Lutheran, the most usual form of Protestantism, or Catholic, based on the choice made by their ruler. Gustavus Adolphus - Gustavus Adolphus - Entrance into the Thirty Years’ War: The motives prompting his intervention have long been a subject of historical controversy. [89] The French also had to rebuild their army in Germany after it was shattered by an Imperial-Bavarian force led by Franz von Mercy at Tuttlingen in November. Gustavus Adolphus left Sweden for Germany on May 19, 1630, never to return. The Palatinate was clearly lost; in March, James instructed Vere to surrender Frankenthal, while Tilly's victory over Christian of Brunswick at Stadtlohn in August completed military operations. He concluded "about 40% of the rural population fell victim to the war and epidemics; in the cities,...33%". "into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620". Fighting did not end immediately, since demobilising over 200,000 soldiers was a complex business, and the last Swedish garrison did not leave Germany until 1654. At Prague in 1635, Ferdinand made peace with his German opponents by accepting their autonomy. Beginning in 1618, this period ended with the Peace of Prague in 1635. [139] In 2012, she and other victims were officially exonerated by the Cologne City Council. These concerns were exacerbated when a series of legal disputes over property were all decided in favour of the Catholic Church. Was he fighting for Christianity or personal power? … I am not ignorant of the deplorable condition in which you stand at this moment; but I wish you had been able to call upon me for help earlier. It could be resupplied by water, since the Swedes did not have a powerful navy to blockade. 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